“Esistono pratiche tradizionali che i nostri stessi avi, se dovessero tornare in vita, troverebbero obsolete e sorpassate” recitava il grande saggio africano Amadou Hampaté Bâ.
Le female genital mutilation (FGM) are traditional practices that are performed for therapeutic reasons, in 28 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, some countries in the Middle East, Asia and among some ethnic groups of Central and South America. It has also documented the presence in the countries of the EU and the U.S. among immigrant communities.
Such practices undermine the very psychological and physical health of girls and women who are subjected to. The World Health Organization estimates that have already been subjected to the practice 100-140 million women worldwide, and that 3 million girls are at risk each year.
WHO (World Health Organization Health) has classified mutilation in 4 different types, depending on the severity of effects
1. Circumcision (infibulation or al-sunna) : is the removal of the tip of the clitoris, with escape of seven drops of blood symbolic;
2. al-Wasat Excision: The removal of the clitoris and partial or total cutting of the labia minora;
3. Female circumcision (circumcision or Pharaonic or Sudanese) : The removal of the clitoris, labia minora, part of the labia majora with vaginal cauterization, followed by the stitching of the vulva, leaving only a hole open to allow the outflow of urine and del sangue mestruale;
4. Il quarto gruppo comprende una serie di interventi di varia natura sui genitali femminili.
Queste pratiche sono eseguite in età differenti a seconda della tradizione: per esempio nel sud della Nigeria si praticano sulle neonate, in Uganda sulle adolescenti, in Somalia sulle bambine.
Source: http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutilazioni_genitali_femminili , http://www.endfgm.eu/
Si fa con un coltello speciale, in alcuni Paesi con piccole seghe, lamette o pezzi di vetro. A tagliare nella maggioranza dei casi è personale non medico.
Strumento per la pratica di mutilazione genitale femminile ( http://femminicidio.blogspot.com )
Bambina sofferente durante la pratica della circoncisione ( http://www.partitodemocratico.it )
"E' un'usanza africana, non musulmana, diffusa anche in uno stato cristiano, come l'Etiopia" spiega Marica Livio, ginecologa del Naga, un'associazione volontaria di assistenza per gli stranieri, "serve a garantire la verginità e, dopo il matrimonio, a garantire la fedeltà della moglie.
Molti governi, come il Kenya, l'hanno vietata, ma per la cultura africana è un rito importante: pochi, anche tra gli emigrati in Europa, ci rinunciano."
Non aver subito la mutilazione genitale significa isolamento sociale: i Bambara, una delle etnie del Mali, chiamano "bikaloro" le bambine o donne non infibulate e questo è un gravissimo insulto, che vuol dire esseri devoid of any maturity. Women are not excised, they are not real women, have no friends, no right to be courting, getting married.
Source: infibulation, the article on Dr. Giuliana Proietti http://www.psicolinea.it/
Belief That There Is A female genitalia are dirty and unsightly. FGM-Practicing in Some societies, women are unmutilated Regarded as unclean and are not allowed to handle food and water. [...] Often FGM is Deemed Necessary in order for a girl to be Considered a complete woman, and the practice marks the divergence of the sexes in terms of Their future roles in life and marriage.
The removal of the clitoris and labia - viewed as burdens by the "evil parts” of a woman’s body - is thought to enhance the girl’s femininity, often synonymous with docility and obedience.
It is possible that the trauma of mutilation may have this effect on a girl’s personality. If mutilation is part of an initiation rite, then it is accompanied by explicit teaching about the woman’s role in her society.
Nonostante questa pratica sia spesso attribuita ai dettami della fede musulmana o cristiana, le MGF precedono storicamente l’avvento di queste religioni e non possono quindi trovare giustificazione in esse.
According to some theories, excision dates back to ancient Egypt, but is also found in Rome, where he had practiced on the slaves and is linked to property aspects of the female body.
Also in Rome are infibulation - a term of Latin origin - which was initially designated an exclusively male: it was a sort of badge - fibula - which was applied to young people to prevent them from having sex.
But the center of the spread of female female seems to have been Pharaonic Egypt, as shown by the designation of "pharaonic circumcision".
However to date the origin of the mutilation Female Genital seems destined to remain undetermined. The only sure thing is that it was not to introduce Islam in Africa, female genital mutilation that were already there long before its diffusion.
It is in fact indigenous customs are deeply rooted in local societies and background to the penetration of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa and Central and Eastern Europe.
[...] The deep roots of FGM is due to a complex constellation of factors ranging from ethnic group to another but have some common traits. It is the role that such traditional practices in the construction of identity has gender and ethnicity in education, as well as in the definition of relations between the sexes and generations. For
traditional practices means those usual acts, commonly used, which have been made by previous generations, and that most likely will be passed to the next.
female genital mutilation, however, are a particular type of traditional practices. With them we are in fact the rites of passage, or those ceremonial practices that guide, supervise and regulate the changes of status, role, or age of people and in doing so mark the various stages of life, transforming them into a path ordered and with respect.
In particular, female genital mutilation is a key component of initiation rites in traditional societies through which it becomes a "woman." Women in fact are not born, to ensure that the rites that transform the membership sex linked to biological sex in a "social essence." [...]
female genital mutilation is also the gateway to their community, are a ritual of entry such as is the baptism for Catholics, and as such constitute a point of no return, which separates those who is inside from those outside.
[...] The context that gives meaning to the cultural practice of female genital mutilation is a complesso di strategie matrimoniali, fondate sul prezzo della sposa, a cui si accompagnano una serie di tratti secondari che variano da un’etnia all’altra. Per prezzo della sposa si intende il compenso che la famiglia del futuro marito versa alla famiglia della futura moglie in cambio non di una donna qualsiasi, ma di una donna illibata, intatta, vergine possibilmente chiusa oppure escissa a dovere in modo da scoraggiarne desideri e rapporti prematrimoniali [...] in altre parole le mutilazioni dei genitali femminili sono una componente fondamentale del matrimonio in Africa, poiché contribuiscono a regolare la gestione delle risorse e la rete complessa degli scambi e delle relazioni sociali.
Tenere presente questo complesso sistema economico-simbolico significa smettere di guardare alle mutilazioni dei genitali femminili come a una pratica culturale decontestualizzata, a una stravaganza esotica in grado solo di rimandarci alla categoria dei “fenomeni culturali”, facendo il gioco di quanti cercano di dare sostanza alle differenze culturali per poi poterne fare oggetto di discriminazione.
[...] Occorre ricordare infatti che, se nel passato tali pratiche hanno trovato un loro posto nelle cosmogonie protese alla codificazione dei ruoli tradizionali dei due sessi per contribuire “all'ordine mitico” del mondo, le pratiche dell'ablazione di tutto o parte degli organi genitali femminili esterni non sono prescritte da alcuna religione.
Tali pratiche entrano oggi in totally at variance with the universally recognized principles of respect for the physical and moral person and equality in dignity and rights of both sexes, and constitute an unacceptable violence against women.
addition to the psychological damage they generate, they cause many medical dramas and contribute to the persistence of high mortality of women in countries where they are practiced on a massive scale.
Source: STOP FGM! year 2004-2006, published by No Peace Without Justice
Three young women in Nimba County, Liberia, On Their Way to Participate in the Sand School - a bush That initiation ceremony ends with female genital mutilation ( http://www.flickr.com )
Young african girls Being prepared for circumcision ( http://www.newstimeafrica.com )
intervention infibulation not is a once in a lifetime : many women are defibulated reinfibulation and then at of each delivery. And we know how many times a woman in certain countries be forced to give birth. The most serious complications are mostly physical: death, hemorrhage, infection, but also the psychological consequences are no less serious.
Moreover, when a child feels that those who should protect, namely the mother's parents are the first to make sure that you suffer this pain, this violence, the psychological reaction that can not be that of an implicit pact with evil his assailants, his identification with them to confirm their worth in their eyes. It 's so that a mutilated woman becomes in turn the mutilation of his daughter because in questo atto trova le ragioni della propria storia.
[...] Le donne devono comprendere l’assurdità di questa mutilazione e va assolutamente impedito che esse da vittime continuino a trasformarsi in carnefici.
Source: INFIBULAZIONE, articolo della Dr.ssa Giuliana Proietti su http://www.psicolinea.it/
"The pain inflicted by FGM does not stop with the initial procedure, but often continues as ongoing torture throughout a woman’s life " Manfred Nowak, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture
Though no religious scripts prescribe the practice , practitioners often believe the practice has religious support. Religious leaders take varying positions with regard to FGM: some promote it, some consider it irrelevant to religion, and others contribute to its elimination.
[...] Local structures of power and authority, such as community leaders, religious leaders, circumcisers, and even some medical personnel can contribute to upholding the practice. [...] In some societies, recent adoption of the practice is linked to copying the traditions of neighbouring groups. Sometimes it has started as part of a wider religious or traditional revival movement. In some societies, FGM is being practised by new groups when they move into areas where the local population practice FGM.
Female genital mutilation has no known health benefits. On the contrary, it is known to be harmful to girls and women in many ways.
First and foremost, it is painful and traumatic. It involves removing and damaging healthy and normal female genital tissue, and interferes with the natural functions of girls' and women's bodies.
Immediate complications can include severe pain, shock, haemorrhage (bleeding), tetanus or sepsis (bacterial infection), urine retention, open sores in the genital region and injury to nearby genital tissue.
Long-term consequences can include: recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, cysts, infertility, the need for later surgeries (for example, the FGM procedure that seals or narrows a vaginal opening is surgically changed to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth, and sometimes stitched close again afterwards) and an increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths (for example, babies born to women who have undergone female genital mutilation suffer a higher rate of neonatal death compared with babies born to women who have not undergone the procedures).
Source: Eliminating FemaleGenitalMutilation, published by WHO (World Health Organization), http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/fgm/9789241596442/en/index.html
Northern Iraq, Sheelan Anwar Omer, 7 years old, Continues to cry after Was a female circumcision preformed on her (photo by Andrea Bruce reportage for The Washington Post titled Sheelan's Circumcision)
The age of women undergoing FGM varies from 15 to 49 years (standard document), but the practice has spread to children under 9 years.
"In Egypt 90% of girls who HAD undergone FGM Were Between 5-14 years of age When subjected to the procedures, 50% of Those in Ethiopia, Mali and Mauritania Were under 5 years of age, and 76% of Those in the Yemen're Not More Than 2 weeks old. "
Source: Progress in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research, No. 72, WHO (World Health Organization), 2006
Among mothers who undergo FGM, 1-2 per cent of babies die as a result (per 100 Deliveries).
Source: Amnesty International, WHO (World Health Organization)
"it is dangerous social and cultural practices that affect the welfare, dignity, normal growth and normal development of the child "
Source: African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, 1990, Art. 5
As a manifestation of gender inequality, FGM / C is multidimensional and Affects the physical and mental health of girls and women in many ways. It affects girls’ schooling and limits their capacity to reach their potential.
It can increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV.
[...] Accordingly, ending all forms of FGM/C is crucial to the success of the Millennium Development Goals, especially those related to gender equality, universal primary education, maternal health, child mortality and HIV/AIDS. Fundamentally the practice is a violation of human rights, and more specifically of child rights, and needs to be dealt with in ways that address its underlying causes.
Source: Platform for Action: Towards the Abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C), The Donors Working Group on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
FGM is recognized internationally as a violation of the human rights of girls and women. It reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes, and constitutes an extreme form of discrimination against women. It is nearly always carried out on minors and is a violation of the rights of children.
The practice also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.
Source: Amnesty International, WHO (World Health Organization),
Among the numerous international conventions for the protection of women from female genital mutilation , the Ouagadougou Declaration calls "the adoption of national laws that condemn female genital mutilation, and the creation of special facilities for the control of migratory flows of circumcisions."
The first Ministerial Conference on Human Rights Organisation per l’Unità Africana (OAU), tenutasi nell’aprile del 1999 alle isole Mauritius, ha esortato gli Stati africani ad adoperarsi per l’eliminazione delle discriminazioni contro le donne e per l’abolizione delle pratiche culturali disumane e degradanti per le donne e per le bambine e i bambini.
Source: Convenzioni internazionali per la protezione delle donne dalle mutilazioni genitali femminili, Progetto Aurora: MGF, io no
Women listen to an educational talk regarding the dangers
of female circumcision in Mali (Photo Alfredo Caliz)
of female circumcision in Mali (Photo Alfredo Caliz)
Educational group against female genital mutilation ( http://www.fgmnetwork.org )
[...] Questo problema, che ci appare così lontano, appartenente ad altri mondi ed ad altre culture, ci è invece molto vicino: in Italia infatti vivono oggi tra noi 28.000 donne mutilate, fra cui 5.000 hanno subito questo intervento in Italia.
Source: INFIBULAZIONE, articolo della Dr.ssa Giuliana Proietti su http://www.psicolinea.it/
What arouses greater surprise is the discovery that this traditional practice is also carried out on children born in Western countries and nationals of these countries. A stronger then traditional practice of law and civilization of the West that continues to be perpetrated mainly by the will of women to whom is delegated the role of traditional cultural heritage conservation and where the attitude of surrender, submission , inferiority and passivity coincides with the social control of female behavior.
[...] The National Committees are non-governmental organizations, but they need to operate the government support, perché è essenziale associare nelle campagne di formazione/informazione i ministeri della Sanità, dell'Istruzione, dell'Informazione, degli Affari religiosi.
Contemporaneamente alla formazione di formatori che inseriscano la tematica in tutti i progetti e programmi di sviluppo in corso nel paese, si procede all'elaborazione di materiale da utilizzare nei media moderni (giornali, radio e TV) e nelle forme di comunicazione più tradizionali (poesia, canzoni, teatro).
Ai Comitati nazionali vengono inoltre dati i mezzi tecnici e finanziari per condurre le campagne di formazione e informazione. Ma Aidos non interviene nei contenuti dei pacchetti formativi, né nella scelta messages to be given by the experts that are fully developed in the country concerned.
None of us has ever deluded that a traditional practice such as FGM can be eradicated in a few years. It takes political will and adequate resources.
In recent years, however, progress has been enormous.